In Hadley’s book, quite a number of things are alarming. One of them: new objects in familiar spaces, like the neighbor’s trash bag that hasn’t been sitting out the day before, or a penguin wearing a hat, standing provocatively at a doorway where no one used to stand. (I totally get that. Penguins are not supposed to wear hats; now that’s just weird!)
My favorite way to deal with scary stuff is to make it part of a game. I’ve done this with Phoebe back in the day when she had a random-objects-are-scary phase in her adolescence, and now I’m using the same strategy for Hadley. By means of shaping, I want to give Hadley the experience that he controls the situation, and can turn scary stuff into cookie vending machines by means of choosing to engage with it.
Engaging with scary objects in return for a cookie is entirely his choice, not mine. I’m not luring him closer, and I’m not forcing him to engage with the scary object in any other way. Hadley decided whether he goes all the way up to an object, touches it, or just plays a little LAT from a distance. If he chooses to disengage after a little while, that’s okay, too.
Now that I’ve finally decluttered my camera phone, I got to film today’s encounter with a penguin wearing a hat. We met that weird bird on our way home from a walk in the neighborhood. We frequently walk past this house, and never before has there been a penguin standing in front of it. Obviously, Hadley was concerned. It looked quite devious in its green hat, pretending to be all innocent, just standing there provocatively. It might just have been planning to murder us all, and Hadley was right to point this out to me.
This is what our penguin session looked like:
Note that rather than using strategic points of reinforcement, I’m feeding away from the penguin, so the increase of distance acts as an additional reinforcer (R-). The whole thing took about 5 minutes, including a few breaks whenever either Hadley chose to disengage and do sth. else for a little bit, or when I went to reinforce Phoebe who I had put in a sit-stay. When Hadley offered looking at the penguin or approaching it again after a break, we were back in the game. At 0.30 in the video, you can see from Hadley’s body language that he’s getting too close. I should have clicked sooner, i.e. after fewer steps towards the penguin. He trusts me enough to keep playing, so for the next click, I lower criteria to just a few steps, something he can easily do. Then I gradually increase criteria again. At the end, you see his first bold touch. He’s not worried anymore and recognizes the penguin as the latest cookie-vending machine that has been placed here for his convenience! Engage with it, get a cookie from mum. Sweet!
A few days ago, we met Tini and Nayeli for a walk. Hadley recognized Nayeli after briefly alarm-barking at her from the car, and immediately started playing chase with Phoebe and her! Wow – this is the first time he has played as intensely with a dog who isn’t a family member. Nayeli is simply a great role model, and a wonderful auntie to have as a puppy. I’m sure Hadley will have fun with Tini and her when he vacations with them in January.
We encountered two strange off-leash dogs on our walk. The first one was a tiny, shy puppy. Phoebe, Fanta and Nayeli didn’t care about the tiny dog, but Hadley approached him with a friendly wagging tail! WOW! Best. strange. dog. encounter. ever! I was soooo happy; proud of my puppy and of my training success, and happy that my dogs get to have dogs like Nayeli in their lives.
The three musketeers are having fun near Lusthaus.
Today, we had another very successful outing: we went for a walk today – just Phoebe, Fanta, Hadley and I. Off leash, on the fields.
After a few minutes, two women with a dog slightly bigger than Hadley, also off-leash, crossed our way. We saw them coming from a distance. Phoebe and Fanta walked over to say hallo, and Hadley … looked, wagged, and went back to playing chase with Phoebe! He had only hesitated a moment, than decided that the strange dog wasn’t a threat. He didn’t keep close to me, and didn’t mind walking or running close to the strange dog. The women and I walked together for about fifteen minutes.
Phoebe, Hadley and the first dog we encountered on today’s walk.
A little later, the next challenge: a with an on-leash Spitz about Phoebe’s size came straight at us. I took my dogs on leash, and made way for the Spitz to pass, started feeding treats when Hadley noticed the strange dog and went on feeding until he had passed us. Hadley watched the dog attentively and calmly ate his treats, then quickly switched to offering sits – the strange dog wasn’t important enough to pay attention to! Hah! I am SO happy with how he is developing!
Phoebe, Fanta, Hadley and the two women’s small dog were let off leash again. Another few minutes went by, and we met the next dog: an old, off-leash Maltese who was standing quietly near his even older owner. The Maltese told our group in body language that he was neither a threat not interested in interacting with any of them, and they all curved around him. Hadley followed suit! While curving, he had his tail slightly between his legs and glanced sideways at the Maltese, but followed the other three without hesitation. Woohooo! Witnessed how to deal with dogs like this, and did it himself! Wonderful puppy, and I’m happy my training has helped him become more confident around strange dogs!
Fanta, Hadley and, in the distance, the dog who walked with us for a while. Everyone’s happy doing their own thing. There’s plenty of space for everyone, and no need to feel threatened.
We parted ways with the two ladies and their dog. I played with my camera while Phoebe and Hadley played near the water and Fanta had one of his rare it’s-my-favorite-season runs.
On our way back, we met an off-leash Border Collie; an adult black-and-white female. Phoebe mistook her for Xandro and was quite startled when she realized that Xandro isn’t the only beautiful Border around. I didn’t interfere with Hadley’s behavior because it had been going very well so far. Hadley looked and I could see that this dog was more concerning to him than the others had been. She was more active, and held her busy tail up high. And then she even looked at him directly! Hadley made one tiny bark. I kept walking and called him, he came. She came over, he let her sniff him submissively, and then happily greeted her human. We exchanged a few words while Hadley watched Phoebe and the Border discuss who was going to keep the stick they had found.
We walked on, and passed the old man with the Maltese again. They were still standing at the same spot, chatting with an acquaintance. This time, Hadley curved around the Maltese without hesitation and without putting his tail between his legs. Yeah!
Almost back at the car, we met a woman with a big, on-leash dog resembling an Akita, but slightly smaller. They were walking straight at us. I put my dogs on their leashes, and noticed that the woman deliberately lead her dog on the side of her body that wasn’t facing us and was feeding treats while approaching us. It always makes me smile to see other dog people working with their dogs in similar ways as I do! Also, I’m always happy to encounter polite dog owners who are as keen to avoid on-leash encounters as I am.
We walked a little to the side and let the two of them pass. Hadley requested that I play LAT with him! He looked at the Akita, then back at me. At the Akita again, then back at me! Hah! This is awesome! Thank you, Leslie McDevitt, for coming up with this simple, yet brilliant game. Of course, since he asked me to, I played with Hadley, and he got to earn a few treats for looking, and then for the sits he offered. And on we went, off leash again, back to the car.
I have to say, I am relieved and really, really glad Hadley’s attitude towards strange dogs is slowly relaxing. I am also glad that the strategy I chose for dealing with his issues is turning out to be the right one for him!
Wow – time really does fly. So much has happened since the last time I found a moment to sit down and write a blog post. Where do I begin?
The little rascal has been a pretty easy puppy to take care of. He’s been spending lots of time with me when Tom is at work, and I couldn’t help comparing him to Phoebe. In most regards, Hadley has been less of a challenge than Phoebe when she was his age. Phoebe was an extremely high-energy puppy, and she was very mouthy. Hadley has mostly been relaxed and friendly.
There is, however, one thing that concerns me: Hadley is a rather wary puppy, particularly when it comes to strange dogs. From day 1 onwards, he has been alarmed by strange dogs, even the ones that were 1.5 blocks away. I am worried about this because Hadley spent his puppyhood among all kinds of different dogs – his breeder has more than 10 Border Collies, Norwegian Lundehunds, and a Beauceron. To my knowledge, Hadley has only had good experiences with her dogs. In theory, these positive early socialization experiences should have turned him into a dog who approaches new dogs with curiosity and confidence. However, this is not the kind of puppy he turned out to be: initially, he would avoid other dogs whenever possible, froze/stared and eventually barked when avoidance was not possible, and tried to hide/flee if they came too close. He also took a comparatively long time (read: several meetings over the course of several days) to warm up to new dogs. However, once he considered a dog a friend, he’d play with her like any other happy puppy.
After consulting with friends and colleagues and debating how best to handle a dog-sensitive Border puppy, I came up with the following plan, which I’ve been working on since Hadley has moved in:
Part A – socialization
introduce Hadley to my friends’ friendly adult dogs in various short sessions. Always put up a portable crate and/or familiar blanket for him to retreat to, and make sure the other dogs respect his safety zone. Let him watch and decide for himself whether and when he is ready to initiate interaction. Never force contact. Never overwhelm or flood him.
My idea was that I would provide Hadley with a number of distinctly positive experiences that lead to dog-dog friendships, rather than create lots of neutral dog-dog experiences. I hoped that the more dogs he got to know and make friends with, the easier it would be for him to be around new dogs in the future, and that eventually, he would start considering strange dogs to be interesting rather than scary.
Part B – management and alternative behavior
I would also work on Leslie McDevitt’s Look at That game (LAT). That is to say, I would teach Hadley to earn clicks and treats by means of looking at strange dogs from a distance: I wanted him to start seeing strange dogs as cookie-vending machines rather than potential threats. “Dad, mum, there’s a dog, did you see it? Look, it’s over there! Where’s my cookie?”
LAT makes use of both classical and operant conditioning. One the one hand, a potentially scary stimulus is repeatedly paired with a strong reinforcer (tasty treats), which changes the emotional response to the stimulus. On the other hand, the dog is being empowered as he learns that he can use dogs he spots on the street to make a treat happen. All he has to do is point them out to his humans with a movement of his head.
If strange dogs were too close, I would retreat by means of putting a barrier between ourselves and the trigger, changing sides or doing a U turn.
Part A has been going well. Apart from my own two dogs, I’ve strategically introduced Hadley to 12 dogs by now; some male, some female, some neutered, some intact, some small, some large:
1 Border Collie
4 Miniature Pinschers
1 Irish Setter
1 Golden Retriever
1 American Staffordshire Terrier X
1 Akita mix
1 Sheltie X GSD
1 small Terrier X
He has met all of them several times in safe, short sessions, and made friends with all of them. The first few outings, he would just sit in his safe space and observe from a distance until we went home again. I did not try to convince him to come out, but focused on making sure he felt safe. Apart from that, I did not distract him with food, but let him choose what to do – stay in his safe spot and observe, walk away and do his own thing, or initiate contact with the new dogs. Helene, a friend who shares her life with 7 wonderful dogs, has been a huge help with this. (Thank you, Helene, Xandro, Wasti, Arkani, Schoko, Hexi and Guinness!)
Helene lives just around the corner. So we would meet up at a meadow close by. I would get there first and set up Hadley’s safety zone: a pop-up crate and a blanket in front of it. He could choose to hide in the crate, sit on the familiar blanket, or come all the way out on the meadow. I took one of my own dogs with me so Hadley could see that they were not afraid of the new dog we introduced him to. If he wanted, Hadley could take the crate’s side exit and go explore the forest and shrubbery rather than engaging with the other dogs, who did their own thing out in the field.
The first two times, Helene brought Border Collie Xandro and Miniature Pinscher Wasti, and I brought Fanta and Hadley. Helene and I spent twenty minutes sitting on the blanket and chatting. Hadley stayed in the crate or on the blanket with us, but did not approach either of her dogs. This was okay. It was his choice. After twenty minutes, we left and Hadley went back to sleep at home to sleep off his adventures and maybe do some latent learning.
The third time, Hadley approached Wasti with a cautious wag … and started following him around at a distance. Whenever Wasti turned around, Hadley would hurry back to his safety zone, but soon after, his curiosity took over and he followed Wasti again. He did, however, still keep his distance from Xandro.
The fourth time, Hadley was happy to see Wasti and followed him around more, even if it meant moving further away from his safety zone. His overall confidence had clearly grown, and he even sniffed Xandro’s tail a few times – of course, when Xandro turned to face him, he would retreat like he used to do with Wasti. But from behind, the Border Collie had stopped looking all that scary.
We did numerous sessions like that. Once Hadley had grown comfortable with one dog, we’d introduce another one. The last time Helene and I met, we didn’t need a blanket or crate anymore, and were able to take all 9 dogs for a walk together. Hadley had fun from beginning to end. He mostly played with Phoebe, but did not mind running ahead with her, getting close to Helene’s dogs, and quickly bounced back the two times he didn’t respect Schoko’s personal space and got a reprimand by his new auntie. I’d call this a BIG success – thank you very much for your help, Helene, and a big thank you to your patient, friendly dogs who have already been a big help in raising Hadley!
Hadley is having a good time during a 9-dog outing with Phoebe, Fanta, Xandro, Guinness, Wasti, Arkani, Hexi and Schoko.
Another dog who has been immensely helpful is Olivia, the dog who’s mum runs our local pharmacy. Olivia is a friendly and very patient Dalmatian. We’ve been visiting her several times in the course of the last weeks. At first, we kept Olivia in a back room behind a baby gate, while Hadley could look at her from the far end of the adjoining room. He could choose to walk closer or leave, to just observe Olivia who slowly wagged her tail and looked sideways, or to engage with the pharmacy personnel who were happy to greet him and let him lick their faces. (Meeting people is something that has always made Hadley happy.) The second time we went, Hadley chose to approach the gate and cautiously greet Olivia and lick her lips. The third time, he was able to meet her without a gate, and was happy to dance around her and explore her space. Olivia, the patient girl, gave him all the freedom in the world and happily took my thank-you treats.
Hadley and Olivia – first time without being separated by a baby gate.
Phoebe’s best girlfriend, the Golden Nayeli, has had a very easy time when it came to making friends with Hadley. She and her mum visited us at home and spent an afternoon with us. In his own home, where he feels most confident, and able to watch Phoebe and Nayeli play, Hadley quickly decided that he wanted to join in the fun – and that’s what he did. Thank you, Tini, for helping Hadley make a new friend! Nayeli has already been a great aunt for Phoebe when she was little, and now she’s doing the same thing for Hadley. It takes a village, doesn’t it?
Various other helpers later, Hadley has made great progress! By now, he will cautiously approach new dogs with a wag after only 1 or 2 minutes of observing from a save distance.
However, his initial response is still fear, and unless I carefully set up these situations and manage the initial distance, he will default to freeze/stare or hide/flee.
It was interesting to visit his breeder two weeks ago. His mom, dad and brother were there. Tom let Hadley out of the car. Hadley saw his father and immediately hid under the car. His father lowered his head to look at Hadley, and there was a lightbulb moment of recognition – as soon as he recognized the Border Collie in front of him, Hadley was ready to approach and happily greet his dad. Or at least, that’s what it looked like to me. It’s not that Hadley is afraid of his father – but until he recognized him, he wanted to hide.
Hadley, his parents and his brother Horace got to have a little family reunion when we visited the breeder.
What does this mean? Does he have a genetic predisposition to being on the fearful side? His breeder remarked a while ago, when I commented on Hadley being cautious, that he had always been “the most sensitive of the litter”. Is sensitive a euphemism for something else? I don’t know. And in the end, it does not matter. No matter where a certain behavior stems from, the laws of behavior always apply. And these laws are the foundation of all training. Also, no matter who Hadley was yesterday, is today, or will be tomorrow, the one thing that will always be true is that he’s the world’s most wonderful puppy, and the most perfect dog Tom could have adopted 🙂
But back to Hadley’s dog issues:
Part B has also been going well. I’m always armed with clicker and treats anyway, so I’ve been playing LAT with all the random dogs we met on walks. I like how having an objective (teach Hadley that the LAT game is fun!) changes my attitude towards dog encounters: it makes me happy whenever I see a dog in the distance rather than annoyed that I have to change sides or do a U turn. This always happens when I play LAT with a new dog – Pirate and I also had a lot of fun whenever we went out trigger hunting and LAT adventuring. It became one of our favorite bonding games.
As for Hadley, he is becoming an LAT expert. I’ve started naming the behavior, and the distance we can play at has shrunk. We can now play with (calm) dogs on the other side of the street rather than 1.5 blocks away, and after only a few Look-s, Hadley will now switch to offering a different behavior (usually prolonged eye contact or sit). Definitely a success worth celebrating!
Tom and Hadley also participated in my recall workshop the other day. Hadley had to keep a bit of a distance at first, but soon was able to comfortably work near the other dogs, and was happy to play with them after class. He’s a very brave little puppy!
Tom and Hadley testing the quality of treats. Even though the other participating dogs are nearby, Hadley can relax and concentrate on his task.
The nice thing about writing these things down is that it makes me see the progress. When I don’t keep notes, it’s easy to miss out on the tiny little steps of progress I’ve been making every day or every session. It’s like watching a kid (or a puppy) grow up: you see them every day, and you don’t notice how they get bigger – unless every once in a while, you ask them to stand with their back to a door frame and draw a line where their head is. Taking training notes is like drawing lines on a door frame. It helps me see change.
I’ve made another observation that makes it clearer what often happens to clients who have reactive dogs: when I’m out with Hadley in our neighborhood, we hardly ever have an incident. I’m always ready to change sides, make a U-turn, play LAT … Tom and Hadley, on the other hand, still have those encounters where Hadley starts barking or freezes for a moment or two. That means Hadley still practices reactivity.
I’ve been thinking about why this happens to Hadley and Tom rather than Hadley and me, and come up with the following list of reasons. I think being aware of these might help me better coach clients with reactive dogs:
– Until we’ve trained our eyes and brain to selectively focus on dogs in our environment, we tend to see them too late (aka after our dog has already seen them).
– Until we’ve fine-tuned our observation skills to read the fine print in a dog’s body language, we tend to notice fear only when it is obvious – i.e. when our dog is about to react or has already started reacting.
– Unless we have experienced fear ourselves, or really taken an interest in how it works, it is not obvious to us that a puppy’s dog reactivity is a reason to worry in the first place. We tend to assume it’s just a phase he’ll grow out of, or that it will go away with random exposure to dogs, or that a dog is still capable of learning when in fight-or-flight mode.
– Unless we have experienced fear ourselves, or really taken an interest in how it works, it is not obvious to us that aversives are not a constructive solution for reactivity.
– We tend to forget that dogs learn all the time, not only in the training sessions we specify: we’re likely to forget clicker and treats when we take our dogs out to potty rather than setting up for a training session.
– Putting our dog’s safety and comfort level first, even if it means ignoring/stopping/avoiding/standing up to friendly strangers (and their dogs) is an attitude we have to consciously adopt, and to practice.
I wonder how I can make these pieces of the puzzle more accessible to my clients to get them to this point sooner rather than later. I want to minimize their frustration and maximize the quality of their and their dog’s walk. The more “mistakes” happen, the longer it will take for a reactive dog to get over his fears. The longer it takes for our reactive dog, the longer we will have to actively work on his issues, and the longer it will be until being out and about with our canine companion will be the walk in the park will be the uncomplicated, fun activity we’ve been looking forward to.
Of course, this is not to say that Hadley and I don’t run into problems on our walks, too. Walking a reactive dog is hard. It requires both background knowledge, concentration, the desire to be our dog’s advocates, and a number of skills we need to practice: observation skills, timing of the click, and speed (as little time as possible should pass between click and reward). We need to prepare before we go out (clicker, treats, mindset), and keep in mind that like children, our dogs learn every minute – not just when we want to train. Walking a reactive dog is not a walk in the park, it requires your full attention. At least for me, it still requires my full attention. When I don’t pay attention, I often run in a situation I become aware of too late. While walking around my neighborhood has been categorized by playing LAT and hardly any reactive incidents for me, going new places is harder because I don’t know when and where to expect the next strange dog. The other day, Hadley and I were hanging out at a park. He was on leash, and since it was a sunny Sunday and a number of people were out walking their dogs, I ceased the opportunity to play LAT from a safe distance near my car, always ready to retreat behind it, should it be necessary to get another barrier between us and a strange dog. After a while, a woman with her French Bulldog on a flexi lead passed us. Hadley was off the road at a little distance, and on a short leash. It should have been pretty obvious that I was interacting with/training my dog rather than seeking social encounters. The Bulldog came closer, and the woman let it run on the flexi … I politely asked her to stop her dog from coming closer, since my dog was afraid. But what did she do? Let the Bulldog keep running towards us rather than stopping her flexi, telling me, “Well, he has to get used to other dogs at some point, doesn’t he?”
Hadley barked before I had a chance to retreat behind the car. Encounters like this really annoy me. It’s NOT up to you, stranger, to decide when, how and what dogs my dogs are meeting up close. And it is never okay to let your dog run up to a dog on leash without asking. Dogs are on leash for a reason: maybe my dog is scared, or maybe he’s on a leash in order to keep your dog safe from his teeth, or maybe he has flees that I don’t want him to pass on to yours! ALWAYS ask before letting your dog great a strange dog on leash.
Anyways – time to post this update, which is, in fact, already a few weeks old – I just haven’t found the time to finish it yet.
Wieder war Fränkie 3 Tage bei uns, vom 9. bis zum 11.12. Wir haben uns weiterhin aufs Alleinebleiben konzentriert. Ab Minute 19 habe ich in 5-Minuten-Schritten gesteigert, und ab Minute 29 in 10-Minuten-Schritten. Am Tag 3 haben wir 50 Minuten erreicht! WOW, Fränkie rocks!
Eigentlich wollte ich Besuch zum Gegenkonditionieren des Ressourcenverteidigungsverhaltens einladen, aber die Arbeit ist mir dazwischengekommen. Darum gab’s stattdessen:
Trigger-Hunting und heimliches LAT spielen!
Trigger-Hunting ist unser neues Lieblingsspiel. Wir (also Fränkie, Phoebe und ich) haben uns ins Auto gesetzt und das Viertel nach Fränkies Triggern abgesucht. Nr. 1: Ein großer, alter, schwarzer Hund mit grauem Kopf und Herrchen. Fränkie und ich haben ihn zweimal aus ca. 30m Entfernung bespielt, beide Male von hinten, sodass er sich als zusätzliche funktionelle Belohnung von uns entfernt hat. Nr. 2: ein Doggenwelpe, der mit Mann und Kind an einer Straßenecke stand. Wir haben uns nach einige C/Ts aus ca. 30m Entfernung, als Fränkie begonnen hat, Sitz anzubieten, als zusätzliche funktionale Verstärkung entfernt. Nr. 3: Ein blonder Schäfer/Labimix mit Frau. Wir haben ihn von der gegenüberliegenden Straßenseite aus bespielt, während er erst näher gekommen ist und sich dann wieder entfernt hat. Nr. 4.: Ein Chihuahua, der uns mit Mann auf unsrer Gehsteigseite entgegengekommen ist. Wir sind auf die Straße ausgewichen und haben von dort aus LAT gespielt.
Fazit: Ein perfektes Spiel für Fränkie; ich bin stolz auf ihn und mich. Er hat die Regeln sehr schnell begriffen und arbeitet gern für Goudawürfel. Wenn er weiß, was er zu tun hat, ist bereits jetzt eine geringe Entfernung (eine Straßenbreite) möglich. Es ist wirklich klar: Fränkies Leinenaggression liegt daran, dass er an der Leine gehen noch nicht lange kennt und ganz einfach nicht wusste, wie hund sich an der Leine gegenüber anderen Hunden verhält. Da wird zwar noch einiges an Arbeit reinfließen, aber ich bin zuversichtlich, dass Fränkies Leinenaggression mit Zeit, Geduld und LAT “heilbar” ist.
Fränkie & Fanta
Fränkie und Fanta kommen mittlerweile bereits gut miteinander aus. Sie liegen regelmäßig nebeneinander auf der Bank, und Fanta lässt sich von Fränkie manchmal zum Laufen motivieren. Alle drei schlafen problemlos bei mir im Schlafzimmer (das ging bei Fränkies vorherigen Besuchen noch nicht), und Fränkie zeigt, solange nur ich da bin, kein Ressourcenverteidigungs- (bzw. “Eifersuchts-“)verhalten gegenüber Fanta. Das bewusste Gegenkonditionieren bisher zeigt seine Wirkung – nun entsteht sogar Sympathie zwischen den beiden.
Fränkies Mensch wird weiter mit ihm am Alleinebleiben arbeiten. Bis zu unserem nächsten Treffen will sie 30 Minuten außer Sicht in der Wohnung schaffen. (Derzeit ist sie bei 10.) Dazu wird sie auch verstärkt am Öffnen und Schließen der Eingangstür in Jacke und Schuhen arbeiten. Ich habe ihr den Tipp gegeben, daran zu arbeiten, nachdem sie spazieren war und wenn Fränkie müde ist. Sollte er dabei ganz ruhig bleiben, wird sie auch mal einen Schritt raus- und wieder reinmachen.
Auch Tipps für den Besuch bei der Familie und dem Hund der Mutter hat sie mit auf den Weg bekommen. Wir drücken Fränkie die Daumen, dass er das Familien-Wochenende gut meistert!
Ernährung ist ein spannendes Thema: Was wir (und unsere Hunde) essen, wirkt sich auf unser physisches und psychisches Wohlbefinden aus. Interessehalber hab ich mal wieder James O’Heare (1) hervorgekramt, um mir in Erinnerung zu rufen, was er zum Thema Füttern und Verhalten sagt.
Eines der Schlüsselelemente für psychische Ausgeglichenheit ist Serotonin. Serotonin ist unter anderem jener Neurotransmitter, auf dessen Zur-Verfügung-Stehen sich SSRIs (eine gängige Art Antidepressiva) auswirken. Ein Mangel an Serotonin kann beim Menschen unter anderem zu Depression, beim Hund zu Angst, Aggression, Impulsivität oder Hyperaktivität führen. Darum werden sowohl Mensch als auch Hund mitunter mit SSRIs behandelt. Gibt es aber auch Möglichkeiten, den Serotoninspiegel in der Gewebsflüssigkeit des Gehirns über die Nahrung zu erhöhen?
James O’Heare sagt ja. Dabei können wir uns auf zwei Aminosäuren konzentrieren, die in der Nahrung vorhanden sind und im Körper in Neurotransmitter umgewandelt werden: Tryptophan (davon wollen wir viel, weil es die Vorstufe zu Serotonin ist) und Tyrosin (davon wollen wir wenig, weil es die Vorstufe eines “Konkurrenten” von Serotonin, eines sogenannten Serotonin-Antagonisten, ist).
Aus der Nahrung kommen Tryptophan, Tyrosin und andere Aminosäuren erstmal ins Blut, über das sie zur Blut-Hirn-Schranke transportiert werden. An der Blut-Hirn-Schranke streiten sich die Aminosäuren um Einlass, denn es gibt nur eine begrenzte Anzahl von Türen ins Gehirn. Ist viel Tyrosin vorhanden, gelangt wenig Tryptophan ins Gehirn. Ist viel Tryptophan und wenig konkurrierendes Tyrosin vorhanden, gelangt mehr Tryptophan ins Gehirn. Diesen zweiten Fall wollen wir erreichen.
1. Mais vermeiden: Mais enthält große Mengen Tyrosin und kleine Mengen Tryptophan. (Mais ist häufig in Fertigfutter enthalten.)
2. Hochwertige Proteinquellen (Fleisch, Tofu!, …) enthalten mehr Tryptophan als Tyrosin.
3. Kohlenhydratreiches Futter (Reis, Kartoffeln, Hafer, Gerste – kein Mais) enthält zwar weniger Tryptophan als Fleisch, allerdings ist das Verhältnis Tryptophan : Tyrosin besonders günstig.
Was noch wichtiger ist: Kohlenhydrate führen zur Ausschüttung von Insulin. Das Insulin wiederum zieht große Aminosäuren zu den Muskeln. Trytophan ist anders gebaut als andere Aminosäuren und von dieser Umleitung weniger stark betroffen. Daher gibt es weniger Konkurrenz für das Tryptophan an der Blut-Gehirn-Schranke, und in Folge kann mehr Tryptophan ins Gehinr kommen und zu Serotonin umgewandelt werden!
Was folgt daraus?
Bei hyperaktiven, ängstlichen, aggressiven oder impulsiven Hunden könnte man durchaus ausprobieren, ob eine Futterumstellung trainingsunterstützend wirkt: maisfrei, mit hochwertigen Proteinquellen und einer Kohlenhydratquelle.
Ob das allein hilft? Ohne Training wahrscheinlich nicht, aber trainingsunterstützend das Futter umzustellen, ist sicher einen Versuch wert. Habt ihr’s bereits ausprobiert? Ich freu mich auf euren Bericht in den Kommentaren!
(1) O’Heare, James: Die Neuropsychologie des Hundes. Animal Learn: 2009. S. 51-56.
When I started reading Kathy Sdao’s book – which is as much, if not more her personal journey through life as it is a book for dog trainers -, my first impression had nothing to do with training animals: I thought that, should I ever choose to believe in some transcendental entity, I’d like this entity to be like Kathy’s god. That god actually sounded like a god I could live with. A god that loved his creatures unconditionally and provided for them not because they were being good or despite their badness, but because they were, period. A god that was okay with Kathy’s referring to humans as just one animal species among other animal species and agreed with her that plenty in life was free. Even though I had set out to read a dog training book, Plenty in Life is Free turned out to be a book I enjoyed for all kinds of reasons – style, stickiness and anecdotes about curly hair girls.
Having seen Kathy’s videos on youtube as well, I was looking forward to her seminar in Austria. I would probably have missed it if Christine Schragl hadn’t pointed it out to me on the BAT yahoo list – thank you, Christine!
It turned out to be the best seminar I’ve been to in a long time. It inspired a number of articles I’m planning to write and provided new training insights for me. It gave me an idea for my own classes, too: I got Kathy’s permission to borrow her pineapple idea when honoring someone’s amusing contribution to class discussions. A pineapple? Yes, a pineapple. You’ll have to attend one of Kathy’s seminars to find out what it reinforces.
Anyways, here’s a couple impressions from the seminar, as well as a little Pavlovian background I read up on: *)
Cue discrimination test
One of the practical exercises we did was a cue discrimination test. We used different body postures, closed our eyes, changed the distance between dog and handler, used a word that rhymed with the cue, exchanged the cue’s vowel etc. to find out whether our dogs still understood their cues and to ask ourselves whether we wanted them to understand: did we want our dog to down, even if we said “clown”?
Bulldog Lilo plays the cue discrimination game: she knows a hand signal that means lift her paw. But can she also do it when her handler kneels on a chair rather than standing in front of Lilo?
After all that hard work, Lilo’s mum needs a break!
The Chihuahua plays Cue Discrimination – does she understand a down when her mum doesn’t cue her with her hole body, but only her hand?
Working with dog-reactive dogs: classical counter-conditioning, example 1
Client: adult Rhodesian Ridgeback, dog-reactive (and generally nervous) Decoy: “bomb-proof” curly coated retriever with an experienced handler Suggested approach: management; classical counter-conditioning and desensitization
Conditioned stimulus (CS): strange dog Conditioned response (CR): aggression
decoy dog (CS) —-> aggression (CR)
Unconditioned stimulus (US) to be added: tug toy Unconditioned response (UR) to US: joy
tug toy (US) —-> joy (UR)
Combining the two:
decoy dog (CS) + tug toy (US) —-> joy (UR)
(Note that the US must appear after the dog has noticed the CS!)
decoy dog (CS) —-> joy (new CR)
This dog-reactive Ridgeback is used to scanning the environment for other dogs that appear unexpectedly – a stressful life. In this set up, Christine appears with the decoy, her Curly Coated Retriever, from a distance below the Ridgeback’s threshold. At the Ridgeback’s choice point (the moment she spots the retriever), her mum waits for the Ridgeback to notice the other dog, then rewards with a tug toy.
This is so the Ridgeback’s emotion triggered by the CS will eventually change from aggression (CR: “Shit, scary dog!”) to joy (new CR: “Yeah, tug time!”). The sight of a dog becomes a classically conditioned stimulus (equal to the bell in Pavlov’s experiment) meaning tug time is coming.
In a set up like this, it is important that the US (in this case the tug toy) comes after the dog has noticed her trigger (Pavlov would call this delayed or trace conditioning). If the unconditioned stimulus happens simultaneously as or before the dog notices her trigger, the conditioning will not work! If the Ridgeback’s mum had noticed the Retriever first and immediately (i.e. before her dog had seen him) pulled out the tug toy, mum would at best have distracted her dog and at worst have poisoned the toy (i.e. made the toy unattractive/scary).
Combining classical counter-conditioning with desensitization
The most effective way to help the Ridgeback is to combine classical counter-conditioning with desensitization. Her training plan for the next weeks should not only include set ups like the one we did this weekend, but also elements of desensitization. That is to say, the intensity of the stimulus will be gradually increased by means of, for example:
– decreasing the distance from the suddenly appearing decoy – increasing the duration of the decoy’s appearance – chainging the decoy’s walking direction and speed – practicing set ups in challenging environments.
It’s important to only increase one criterion at a time and never put the Ridgeback over threshold. When deciding whether the Ridgeback is ready for us to raise criteria, we’re not looking for the absence of anxiety, but for the presence of joy upon perceiving the decoy dog (CS).
Contingency speeds up the training process
The power of contingency tends to be underrated. However, experiments show that contingency affects Pavlovian learning on two levels: on the level of the CS (trigger, strange dog) and on the level of the US (reward, tug toy).
The level of the unconditioned stimulus (reward, tug toy):
during the training period, this special tug toy should always and only happen after the Ridgeback has seen a dog.
The level of the conditioned stimulus (trigger, strange dog):
strange dogs should only appear in the Ridgeback’s environment when they will be followed by the tug toy.
It will take a while for the sight of a dog to be generalized to all kinds of locations, dogs and trigger intensities and become an alternatively conditioned stimulus meaning tug time. Therefore, for the next 6 weeks, the Ridgeback’s mum will also manage her dog’s environment and avoid walks where she’ll unexpectedly encounter strange dogs at close distances. At the same time, she will practice set ups until she has created a reliable happy emotional response (new CR) to the sight of strange dogs (CS).
It is important a reactive dog’s environment be well managed while she learns: we want to build an alternative neural pathway that leads to happy reaction. We do this by means of the set ups. However, at the same time, we have to prevent the old neural pathway that leads to an upset and reactive dog from being used – by means of management. Once the new neural pathway is strong, the Ridgeback will be able to encounter other dogs on walks without getting upset.
Why is it important that the Ridgeback isn’t surprised by strange dogs that take her over threshold outside of training sessions?
In the context of explaining what to do and what not to do when training a dog how to stay home alone, Jean Donaldson (The Culture Clash) uses a jungle metaphor that can also help us visualize what goes on in a dog-reactive dog: imagine the canine brain like a jungle. Our set ups are the machete by means of which we build the pathway that leads to joy (CS: “Yeah, tug time!”). In order for this newly created path to be attractive for the neurones to travel, we have to make the old path (leading to aggression; CS: “Shit, scary dog!”) less attractive. Only if this old path ceases to be taken by the neurones will it start to be overgrown by jungle plants. Therefore, we might have to use a road block (i.e. management) to prevent access to the old path until the new path is well established and the old one naturally made inaccessible by banana plants and fern.
Or, in more scientific terms and in the words of Robert A. Rescorla: “when the likelihood of a US is the same in the presence and absence of the CS […], there is little evidence of conditioning at all. […] [C]onditioning depends not on the contiguity between the CS and the US but rather on the information that the CS provides about the US.”
When (not) to use classical counter-conditioning with clients
Note that classical counter-conditioning will not build interaction skills. Rather, it helps the dog relax even when there’s other dogs to be met: eventually, seeing a dog in the distance will be a sign that it’s tug time. However, this is not to get her used to interacting with other dogs, but to peacefully coexisting with them/passing them on walks. Should a client wish to further her dog’s interaction skills, we wouldn’t use classical counter-conditioning but a different approach, or a different approach in addition to classical counter-conditioning.
Working with dog-reactive dogs: classical counter-conditioning, example 2
The young German Wirehaired Pointer, Ellie, is scared of other dogs. Kathy explains the set up to her handler: the decoy, Border Collie Kodiak, will be walked past her at a distance below Ellie’s threshold. At Ellie’s choice point (the moment she spots the decoy), Ellie will be fed. This is to teach her that the sight of a strange dog means food is coming, hence changing her emotional reaction, like in the set up with the Ridgeback.
Client: young German wirehaired pointer, dog-reactive (mild fear to unfamiliar dogs)
Decoy: Border Collie Kodiak with an experienced handler (first set up); two Cocker Spaniels with an experienced handler (second set up)
Suggested approach: classical counter-conditioning and desensitization
Conditioned stimulus (CS): strange dog Conditioned response (CR): fear
decoy dog (CS) —-> fear (CR)
Unconditioned stimulus (US) to be added: food Unconditioned response (UR) to US: joy
food (US) —-> joy (UR)
Combining the two:
decoy dog (CS) + food (US) —-> joy (UR)
(Note that the US must appear after the dog has noticed the CS!)
decoy dog (CS) —-> joy (new CR)
Ellie does very well, first with Kodiak walking past her, then Kodiak walking faster past her, then directly at her, and later with two cocker spaniels walking past her. The new CR is already setting in: Ellie spots the decoys and looks expectantly at her handler: bring on the treats!
Ellie is a foster dog. In order to make it easier to rehome her, her foster mum will work on her on a similar training program as the Ridgeback’s mum, with the only difference that Ellie’s reward is food.
Lunch break means play time!
Gudrun and Kathy draw the winners from the chocolate game, and everyone – including the fake Doberman that was used to work with the Chihuahua – poses one last time for the group picture …
… and something for the office wall.
Thanks to everyone who was involved in a pawesome weekend that went by way too fast!
*) Should you notice mistakes involving behaviorological terminology, misunderstandings or ambiguities in my explanation, please point them out to me! Phoebe Flausch and I love our science, but we’re still learning and always appreciate feedback and constructive criticism.